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By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)

This short and available creation to the biosynthesis of molecules of organic value is geared in the direction of supporting non-specialist scholars comprehend and practice biochemical principles throughout the liberal addition of examples, purposes, routines and questions through the textual content.

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To sum up, all polymerization processes proceed by broadly similar types of condensation reactions, which usually involve at least two steps. These processes operate by fully understandable chemistry. There is sometimes a tendency to think of mysterious, half-understood processes when molecules are said to be 'activated'; this is not the case. For example, it is not feasible to use ATP as a dehydrating reagent in aqueous solution. Therefore, sequences of reactions have evolved which allow the overall process to be achieved via intermediates or on the surface of an enzyme.

The reason for the abundance is not fully understood, but it may in part be due to the relatively low catalytic rate of the enzyme. The carboxylation of only three or four molecules of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate can be catalysed per second per enzyme molecule. In comparison a 'typical' enzyme may turn over 1000 or more substrate molecules in the same time. Rubisco from all plant sources consists of large, catalytic subunits (Mr 55 000) and small regulatory subunits (Mr 16 000). The catalytic subunits are synthesized within the chloroplast and the gene that codes for them is located on the chloroplast chromosome.

Swept to sea by rivers. which sank and became mixed with mud and sand in the sediments of inland seas and coastal marine basins. Coal is fossilized plant material dating principally from the Carboniferous period (285-345 million years ago). At that time vegetation was dominated by vast areas of conifers. ferns and similar plants. The death and partial decay of these plants in large swamps formed thick beds of peat from which present day coal fields are derived. (a) (b) Fossils of typical plants of the Carboniferous period from which present day coal fields are derived .

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