By Geyer H. J., Rimkus G. G., Scheunert I.
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Additional resources for Bioaccumulation and Occurrence of Endocrine- Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), Pers[...]umans(en)(166s)
Chemical structure Molecular formula and molecular mass [g mol –1] RPP a (%) Water Solubility (mg l–1) log KOW Detected in water, sludge, sediment, algae, mussel, or fish. 8 l river water, activated sludge, effluents from STPsW 2. J. Geyer et al. 07 was found in effluents in USA, when it was used as a growth – promoting agent in large amounts. 87 Chloro-tris (4-methoxy-phenyl)ethylene Bioaccumulation and Occurrence of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) 3. Synthetic non-steroidal estrogens 4.
The phenomenon was termed “imposex” or “pseudohermaphrodism” . Recent studies by Oehlmann et al.  indicated that TBT increased the testosterone titers in female gastropods. Simultaneous exposure to TBT and to the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate suppressed imposex development completely in Nucella lapillus and greatly reduced imposex in Hinia reticulata. These results proved that the imposex inducing-effects of TBT are mediated by an increasing androgen level and are not caused directly by TBT itself.
Competitive estrogen antagonists are the most specific antiestrogens. Such compounds are used in the treatment of infertility, breast cancer and osteoporosis. Examples are trans-clomiphene and its metabolite trans–4-hydroxyclomiphene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. Clomiphene is used as a fertility agent. This drug can bind to the estrogen receptor, thereby blocking activation by endogenous estrogens. The breast cancer adjuvant non-steroidal pharmaceutical agent tamoxifen and its metabolite, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, exhibit both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activities [149, 294].