Download Armenia A Country Study by Federal Research Division PDF

By Federal Research Division

Within the final a long time of the 19th century, the Armenians' tendency towards Europeanization antagonized Turkish officers and inspired their view that Armenians have been a international, subversive point within the sultan's realm. by means of 1890 the speedy progress of the Kurdish inhabitants in Anatolia, mixed with the immigration of Muslims from the Balkans and the Caucasus, had made the Armenian inhabitants of Anatolia an more and more endangered minority. In 1895 Ottoman suspicion of the westernized Armenian inhabitants ended in the bloodbath of 300,000 Armenians through detailed order of the Ottoman executive.

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1992 January Gamsakhurdia driven from Georgia into exile by opposition forces. March Shevardnadze returns to Tbilisi and forms new government. Spring Armenian forces occupy Lachin corridor linking Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia. June Abulfaz Elchibey elected president of Azerbaijan and forms first postcommunist government there. July Cease-fire mediated by Russia's President Yeltsin in South Ossetia. October Parliamentary election held in Georgia; Shevardnazde receives overwhelming support. Fall Fighting begins between Abkhazian independence forces and Georgian forces; large-scale refugee displacement continues through next two years.

The relationship of Russia to the former Soviet republics in the Transcaucasus caused increasing international concern in the transition years. The presence of Russian peacekeeping troops between Georgian and Abkhazian separatist forces remained an irritation to Georgian nationalists and an indication that Russia intended to intervene in that part of the world when opportunities arose. Russian nationalists saw such intervention as an opportunity to recapture nearby parts of the old Russian, and later Soviet empire.

Azerbaijan did not restructure its agriculture as quickly as did Armenia and Georgia; inefficient Soviet methods continued to hamper production, and the role of private initiative remained small. Agriculture in Azerbaijan also was hampered by the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, which was an important source of fruits, grain, grapes, and livestock. As much as 70 percent of Azerbaijan's arable land was occupied by military forces at some stage of the conflict. In spite of these setbacks, Azerbaijan's economy remains the healthiest among the three republics, largely because unexploited oil and natural gas deposits are plentiful (although output declined in the early 1990s) and because ample electric-power generating plants are in operation.

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