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By Paul Russell

This article offers a single-volume, single-author common creation to the Celtic languages.

The first half the publication considers the ancient historical past of the language staff as a complete. There follows a dialogue of the 2 major sub-groups of Celtic, Goidelic (comprising Irish, Scottish, Gaelic and Manx) and Brittonic (Welsh, Cornish and Breton) including an in depth survey of 1 consultant from each one crew, Irish and Welsh.

The moment part considers various linguistic positive aspects that are frequently considered as attribute of Celtic: spelling structures, mutations, verbal nouns and be aware order.

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The earliest evidence we have is the list of names on Ptolemy's map (illustrated at Rivet and Smith 1979: 107). g. 20 Despite Ireland's geographical isolation beyond the frontiers of the Roman Empire, there is increasing evidence of regular and continuous contact with both Roman Britain and Roman Gaul (Stevenson 1989: 130—3). 1 below). Irish remained for centuries the main language in Ireland despite invasions by Vikings and the English; it continues to be spoken at least in parts of Ireland to the present day.

Williams and Hughes 1988. For Breton, Hemon 1947 is useful for earlier material; see also Le Bihan 1957 on early printed material. For literature, Bromwich 1974 provides a select bibliography; see also Matonis 1987. A bibliography of Continental Celtic is in the course of preparation by Eska. For Latin material from Celtic sources, see Lapidge and Sharpe 1985. 4. D. E. Evans 1979 has a full discussion of the difficulties of interpretation and also provides a useful history and bibliography of the scholarship; for a general discussion, see Schmidt 1977a.

In addition, some of the verbal forms seem to be subjunctive or at least modal in form. However, it is still uncertain whether the text on side A is related to the list of names on side B; if they are related, it is perhaps difficult to understand how the tablet was displayed (Russell 1992b: 177), although a wooden frame leaving both sides visible would not be an impossibility. g. Tocoitoś-Cue śaŕniCio-Cue (side A, lines 10-11) 'of T. ', traces of which survive in Old Irish (Binchy 1960), may be familiar from Latin but cannot have been imitated as Latin only uses the single -que.

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