By Melville L. Wolfrom (ed.), R. Stuart Tipson (ed.)
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L. Whistler and L. R. House, Anal. , 26, 1463 (1953). (75) H. G. , and H. W. Diehl, J . Am. Chem. , 74, 5774 (1952). (76) C. Hudson and T. 5. Harding, J . Am. Chem. ,37,2734 (1915). INFRARED SPECTRA O F CARBOHYDRATES 33 sample of p-melibiose, they concluded that their form must be the LY modification. A trisaccharide produced from sucrose by Aspergillus niger (152) was investigated by Barker, Bourne and C a r r i n g t ~ nDuring . ~ ~ the course of this study they compared the infrared spectra of their trisaccharide and of a known trisaccharide78 produced from sucrose by Takadiastase (a commercial, mold-enzyme preparation), The spectra were identical, and later methylation and hydrolysis studies confirmed the fact that the two trisaccharides were the same.
Water (see Fig. 2, B) and most other molecules do not possess such a center of symmetry. If there is molecular symmetry, a vibration may be either symmetric or antisymmetric. For a symmetric vibration, the displacement vector of one atom will be the mirror image of the displacement vector of the opposite atom (see Fig. 2, A, i). Such a vibration obviously leaves the dipole moment unaltered and is thus forbidden in the infrared. On the other hand, the antisymmetric vibration (see Fig. 2, A, ii) does produce a change in the dipole moment.
C. Gore, R. W. Stafford and V. Z. Williams, Anal. , 20, 402 (1948). (35) J. J . Fox and A. E,. Martin, PTOC. Roy. (London), A162,419 (1937). INFRARED SPECTRA O F CARBOHYDRATES 29 V. APPLICATION OF INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO CARBOHYDRATES 1. Early Work C ~ b l e n appears z ~ ~ to have been the first person to examine the infrared spectra of carbohydrates. ‘ (3-12 p ) . Rogers and Williams4’ extended the series to include D- and L-arabinose, D- and L-lyxose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. They used the same region as had Coblenz, and found a few additional peaks which, they claimed, resulted from an improved technique of handling the sample.