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By P. G. von Mollendorff

A Manchu Grammar: with Analysed Texts
Paul Georg von Mollendorff

Contents

I-Phonology
--Alphabet (Table) Pronunciation
--Harmony of Vowels
--Diphthongs and Triphthongs
--Word alterations and overseas phrases

II-Etymology
--Nouns and Adjectives, Terminations, Plural Case Affixes
--Pronouns
--Numerals
--Verbs, Derivation, Moods and Tenses, Irregularities, Negation
--Adverbs
--Postpositions
--Conjunctions
--Interjections

III-Syntax

Manchu Texts with Translation and research

Index of Affixes and phrases

Appendix--European Literature Treating on Manchu

Introduction

There is as but no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie's translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung, Shanghai, 1855, a type of Mauchu hand-book for using chinese language, although helpful and entire of curiosity, is on no account a grammar.

The common curiosity taken in each language will, after all, be additionally prolonged to Manchu; nonetheless a number of phrases look essential to express the actual usefulness of its research.

There exist in all approximately 25O works in Manchu, the majority of which arc translations from the chinese language. They include translations from the Classics, a few historic and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of well-known writers, novels, poetry, legislation and rules, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, word books, ere. each one of these translations are very good, yet they're all literal. accomplished below the eyes of clever princes, they shape a competent expression of the which means of the chinese language textual content and feature consequently a correct to reputation equivalent to that loved by way of commentaries of fine writers. Manchu being infinitely more uncomplicated to benefit than chinese language, those translations are a superb aid in the direction of acquiring a transparent perception into chinese language syntax, and students like Stanislas Julien, who owed the awesome precision in his renderings to his wisdom of Manchu, have time and again pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the learn of Manchu as being of serious suggestions in translating the Classics. Dr. Legge, even though, within the preface to his translation of the Shuking, suggested himself opposed to it. the explanations complicated through this nice pupil usually are not very cogent, and, actually, now not figuring out the language, he was once not often useful to pass judgement on. yet, whether he have been correct, others should be in a distinct place. Dr. Legge was once probably extra lucky or extra talented than most folks and had a radical mastery of chinese language on the time while St. Julien wrote to him. those that locate chinese language more challenging have a tendency to contemplate the Manchu translations an excellent support.

This grammar being meant for the sensible objective of guiding the scholar in...

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This booklet has been rigorously crafted to make use of the unique pictures of old books instead of error-prone OCR textual content. This additionally preserves the paintings of the unique typesetters of those classics, unknown craftsmen who laid out the textual content, usually through hand, of every and each web page you are going to learn. Their sophisticated paintings related to judgment and interplay with the textual content is in lots of methods more desirable and extra human than the mechanical equipment applied this day, and gave every one e-book a different, home made consider in its textual content that hooked up the reader organically to the artwork of bindery and book-making.

We imagine those merits are well worth the occasional imperfection because of the age of those books on the time of scanning, and their classic believe offers a connection to the prior that is going past the mere phrases of the textual content.

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Hoffentlich bekomme ich eine gute Note. / Noch nicht. / Hat Frau Schiller das Examen korrigiert? 3. Ich kann nicht. Ich bin kein Genie. / Wir müssen achtzig Seiten lesen. / Vielleicht. Aber du musst. 4. Deutsch und Physik. / Der Physikkurs ist nicht für Anfänger. / Welche Fächer standen auf dem Stundenplan? 5. Auf Seite vierzig. / Ich verstehe kein Wort. / Auf welcher Seite steht die Hausaufgabe? 6. Ist das die neue Hausaufgabe? / Er hat etwas an die Tafel geschrieben. / Nein, das ist der Stundenplan für morgen.

Er ist Amerikaner und Austauschstudent. 3. Er studiert Medizin an der Universität. 4. Wer steht neben dem jungen Amerikaner? 5. Seine Verlobte ist Österreicherin. Schulen Americans tend to use the word student to refer to anyone involved in education. Germans make a distinction between a child who goes to school and a young adult going to college. There is also a variety of names for educational institutions. Let’s look at some sentences that illustrate these. In order to attend a university, a German high school student must pass the entrance examination, called das Abitur.

Thomas: Bist du wieder krank? 1. Der Professor lehrt an der Universität. Was lehrt er? 2. Hast du schon das Abitur gemacht? Was möchtest du studieren? 3. Ich bekomme dieses Semester in Physik eine schlechte Note. Du bist immer klüger als ich gewesen. 4. Tina steht vor dem Rathaus. Das ist ein Austauschstudent aus Amerika. 5. Nächstes Jahr besucht Sabine die Grundschule. Im Mai wird sie sieben Jahre alt. 6. Erik ist ein Kommilitone von mir. Nein, er möchte Lehrling (apprentice) in einer Fabrik (factory) werden.

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