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By Nora C. England

This can be the 1st full-length reference grammar of Mam, a Mayan language spoken at the present time through over 400,000 humans within the western highlands of Guatemala and the nation of Chiapas, Mexico. the results of over 3 years of intensive fieldwork in Guatemala, A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language is predicated at the dialect of Mam spoken via 12,000 humans in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan within the division of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. England organizes A Grammar of Mam in keeping with complementary ideas: to research Mam following essentially conventional degrees of grammatical description and to give fabric in this sort of method that the historical past details invaluable for figuring out each one subject of dialogue shall were formerly supplied. for that reason, England's research of the sound process and morphophonemic approaches of Mam is by means of an outline of the features of root, inflectional, and derivational morphology. Chapters on word constitution precede chapters on sentence-level syntax. A Grammar of Mam is of specific curiosity in studying a Mayan language that's either syntactically and morphologically ergative and that's cutting edge towards strengthening the ergative procedure. certainly in any respect degrees of linguistic association Mam is leading edge, and as a result it's uniquely attention-grabbing either traditionally and theoretically.

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Num- 'tranquil' same form as positional roots add a verbal meaning to the Three derivational suffixes have the specific and restric­ ted function of deriving stems from positional roots. -1 All the derived forms ~ One, -ch, derives the positional adjective with the meaning 'placed in the position, form, or state described by the root'. b'etzl jilch b'aq- 'wilted' b'aq- 'pull up (plants)' chit- 'broadcast' chit- 'sow broadcast' 'open, divided' jaq- 'uncap, open' jet'- 'placed, small load' jet'- 'carry small loads' 'stretched out, of an animal; 'face up' pak'- 'carry face up' unoccupied, the position, form, or state described by the root' are de­ rived through the suffix -ee7 txal- Transitive: pak'- Intransitive verbs with the meaning 'be or be placed in tutz'- Positional: 'placed in the position of a toad' of a person who does no community work' paq- basic meaning of the root: jaq- Examples: Transitive verb roots which have the 'lying down' , sitting' 'to one side' ~ -eeb'.

What' 95 I ROOTS AND WORDS 96 ROOTS AND WORDS 'you (familiar between men)' 97 5. A space is left between the two roots in this example CVne q'any eveve b'isan 'soon' but not in the previous example. cvevve joraat 'quickly' writing conventions of native speakers, and perhaps eeV7 kyja7 'like this' This follows the indicates that some compounds are more singly lexemic than others. 6. An NOTES 1. It may seem contrived and over-analytical to analyze at initial~-, xh-, ~-, or ch- is most likely a prefix if it precedes another consonant (4, #1).

It also synthesizes with the compounding directionals -x 'away' and -tz 'toward': go out' k- (3sA) + eela- (go out) + + -x (away) k- + eela- + -1 + -tz + ooka- + -1 + -x The aspects with nologically independent and at times verb or combine with enclitics. The -1 (pot) + -1 + -tz + -x 59 60 KUVH; ANU WORUS ROOTS AND WORDS 'he will go down' k- + kub'a- + -1 + -x kb'e1atz 'he will come down' k- + kub'a- + -1 + -tz is deleted for second person singular of imperatives, as the kaajatz 'he will come back' k- + aaja- + -1 + -tz unmarked imperative.

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