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By Richard V. Burkhauser

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Flat benefits for children. Income-tested benefits for widows and orphans. Sweden Universal old-age pension for aged couple is 160% of pension for single person, with supplements for children and for wife aged 60. Earningsrelated pension has no spouse benefit. Universal survivor benefits for widows and orphans of specified ages. Earningsrelated pensions pay widow 40% and orphans 15% of pension of insured. USSR Old-age pension has supplement of 10% of pension for one dependent, 15% for two or Eligible survivors include widows and children.

Per capita benefits, as in public school benefits. Here a family benefit varies with the number of children attending school. 2. Means-tested benefits, wherein the size of the benefit varies both with an estimate of the unit's needs and a count of variable income and assets. This method is followed in public-assistance programs. 3. Contribution-related benefits, wherein loss of income by the contributor is offset without regard to demonstrated need. Examples of this are found in social insurance against accident, unemployment, and disability, and for retirement.

This is true whether or not the family experiences a large increase in expenses due to the loss of the homemaker's services. William Johnson and William Burfield point out that the various reform proposals would alter and in most cases increase disability protection for persons out of the paid work force. Their paper estimates the potentially large cost of such protection. Financing is the most significant problem with all the proposed reforms of disability coverage. Unless increased disability protection to homemakers is countered by reduced coverage of workers (as would be the case in the 1 0 T h e President's Commission on Pension Policy recommended a system of required minimum private pension coverage for all workers.

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